Unit 4: Training & Human Resource DevelopmentHuman resources and their importance in agricultural development. Concept of human resource management. Training and development of human resources. Identifying training needs and assessment of training impact. Training – principles, importance, methods and factors. Phases of training – pre training and post training. Developing training modules, training requirements, training methods. Lecture cum demonstration method, case method, group brain storming, syndicate method, business games, simulation exercises, in basket exercise, programmed instruction, experiential learning techniques such as sensitivity training, T-group, transactional analysis and fish bowl exercise. Evaluation of training – types and techniques of training evaluation. Motivation, stress management and organizational behaviour as facilitators of human resource development. Capacity Building in relation to Dairying, Poultry, Piggery, Goat and Sheep farming, cottage industries, Rabbit farming, Apiculture, Sericulture, Biofertilizer, Floriculture, and Biopesticides.
Unit 5: Research Methodology in Extension EducationSocial research- concept, principles and approach. Selection and identification of research problems, methods of data collection- interview method and mailed questionnaires, variables -meaning and types, independent, dependent and intervening variables. Hypothesis – concept, characteristics, types and testing. Research design – concept and types, field studies, case studies and survey method. Measurement – meaning and levels. Methods of sampling and statistical tests. Reliability and validity of tests, normal distribution, tests of significance, ANOVA, correlation and regression, scaling techniques. Processing of data, coding – tabulation. Analysis and interpretation. Writing scientific reports, citing references. Participatory approaches, PRA, RRA, PLA and PTD.Unit 6: Programme Planning, Evaluation & Diffusion and Adoption of InnovationsConcept, steps, principles and theories of programme planning. Steps in programme planning for livestock development, organizing campaigns, mass vaccination programmes and variety of extension activities, evaluation of veterinary extension programmes, compilation and report writing. Evaluation of animal husbandry development programmes and schemes. Monitoring and evaluation – concept, significance, types, methods and tools. Theoretical models of programme planning. Felt needs; need-based programmes. Social action. Five Year Plans – critical analysis with special reference to programmes for women, children and youth. SWOT/TOWS analysis of development programmes. Concept and elements of diffusion and adoption for social change. Diffusion process, adoption process, models of diffusion and adoption, adopter categories and their characteristics. Factors influencing adoption and attributes of innovations. Concept and stages of Innovation-decision process, consequences of innovations.Unit 7: Extension ManagementConcept and principles of administration and management, classical and modern theories, schools of management thought. Functions of management – planning, organizing, staffing, directing and leading, controlling, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Types and methods of administrative communication. Decision-making in organization. Organizational effectiveness, organizational climate, organizational behaviour, organizational development, job satisfaction and morale. Time management. Performance appraisal. Coordination at different levels of extension management, methods of coordination. Management by Objective (MBO) and Total Quality Management (TQM). Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). Logical Frame Working (LFW) and Project Management Techniques. Personal management, scope of AgriBusiness Management and Institutions – National Institute of Agricultural Extension and Management (MANAGE). Indian Institute of Plantation Management (IIPM), NIRD, EEl and NAARM. Monitoring, evaluation and impact analysis of extension programmes. Critical analysis of organizational set up of extension administration at various levels. Agricultural Technology Information Centers (ATIC). Technology Parks. Management Information System. Management of Agricultural Knowledge System (MAKS) and use of Expert System. Traditional media for communication in development programmes. Problem Solving Techniques / Negotiation , Motivational Theories & Techniques, Work motivation Organizational climate; Resource management: concept and methods; Team building: process and strategies at organizational and village levels.
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